제3유형 조건문

형태

제3유형 조건문의 'if'절 시제는 과거 완료이며, 주절의 시제는 조건문 완료형이거나 조건문 완료 진행형입니다. 

If절 (조건) 주절 (결과)
If + 과거 완료 조건문 완료 또는 조건문 완료 진행형
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

모든 조건문들의 경우에서 처럼, 절의 순서는 정해져 있지 않습니다. 절의 순서를 변경하는 경우엔 대명사를 재배치하고 구두점을 조절해야 할 수도 있습니다. 하지만 의미는 동일합니다.

  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

기능

제3유형 조건문은 과거의 불가능한 조건과 그것의 가능한 과거의 결과를 진술합니다. 이 문장들은 조건이나 그 결과가 존재하기에 지금은 너무나 늦었기 때문에 진정으로 가상적이며 비현실적입니다. 제3유형 조건문은 항상 약간의 후회에 대한 암시가 있습니다. 현실은 문장이 표현하는 것과 반대입니다. 제3유형 조건문에서 시간은 과거이며 상황은 가상적입니다.

  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (하지만 나는 열심히 공부하지 않았고 시험을 통과하지 못했습니다.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (하지만 나는 몰랐고 케이크를 굽지 않았습니다.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (하지만 당신은 나에게 전화를 하지 않았고 나는 기쁘지 않습니다.)

제3유형 조건문에서는 결과에 대한 확실성, 허가, 또는 권장의 정도를 표현하기 위해서 주절에 "would" 대신 조동사를 사용할 수도 있습니다.

  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
축약형태

Both would와 had 모두 제3유형 조건문에에 대해서 확신이 없다면 혼란스러울 수 있는 'd로 축약될 수 있습니다. 2 가지 규칙을 명심하세요:
1. would는 if절에 결코 나오지 않기 때문에 만약 'd가 if절에 나온다면 had의 축약어입니다. 
2. had는 have 앞에 결코 나오지 않기기 때문에 so if 'd가 have 바로 앞에 대명사와 같이 나온다면, 그것은 would의 축약어입니다. 

  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

조건문 완료 시제

모든 동사의 조건문 완료형은 세 요소로 구성됩니다:
would + have + 과거 분사
Have와 그 뒤에 과거 분삭사가 오는 구조는 다른 문장 구조들에서도 사용됩니다. 이것은 "완료 부정사"라고 불립니다. 

주어 + would + have + 과거 분사
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: 조건문 완료
긍정문 부정문 의문문 부정 의문문
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?