과거 완료 진행형

과거 완료 진행형 기능

과거 완료 진행형은 현재 완료 진행형에 상응하지만, '지금 전' 보다 더 이른 시간을 언급합니다. 현재 완료 진행형과 마찮가지로, 이 시제는 과정에 더 초점을 둡니다.

  • Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?
  • We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane found her key.
  • It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.
  • Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.

이 형태는 또한 간접 화법에서 사용됩니다. 이 형태는 직접 화법에서의 과거 진행형과 현재 완료 진행형과 동등합니다:

  • Jane said, "I have been gardening all afternoon." = Jane said she had been gardening all afternoon.
  • When the police questioned him, John said, "I was working late in the office that night." = When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night.

과거 완료 진행형 만들기

과거 완료 진행형은 두 구성요소로 이뤄져 있습니다 - 동사 to be의 과거 완료형 (=had been) + 현재 분사 (원형+ing).

주어 had been  + ing
I had been walking
긍정문
She had been trying
부정문
She hadn't been sleeping
의문문
Had you been eating?
부정 의문문
Hadn't they been living?
To buy, 과거 완료 진행형
긍정문 부정문 의문문
I had been buying I hadn't been buying Had I been buying?
You had been buying You hadn't been buying Had you been buying?
She had been buying She hadn't been buying Had she been buying?
We had been buying We hadn't been buying Had we been buying?
They had been buying They hadn't been buying Had they been buying?