단순 과거 시제

단순 과거 시제의 기능

단순 과거형은 지금 이전의 어떤에 완료된 사건이나 행위에 대해서 진술할 때 사용됩니다.  기간은 중요하지 않습니다. 사건의 시간은 가까운 과거 또는 먼 과거일 수 있습니다.

  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

무엇인가가 언제 발생했는지 진술할 때 항상 단순 과거형을 사용합니다. 그래서 이것은 특정 과거 표현과 관련되어 있습니다.

  • 빈도: often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • 구체적인 시점: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • 구체적이지 않은 시점: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
  • She played the piano when she was a child.

주의: 단어 ago는 과거로의 거리감을을 표현할 수 있는 유용한 수단입니다. 이 단어는 기간 표현 뒤에 옵니다: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

조심하세요: 영어의 단순 과거형은 여러분 모국어의 시제처럼 보이지만, 의미는 다를 수 있습니다.

단순 과거 시제 만들기

일반 동사의 단순 과거 시제 패턴
긍정문
주어 + 동사 + ed  
I skipped.  
부정문
주어 + did not + to를 포함하지 않는 부정사
They didn't go.
의문문
Did + 주어 + to를 포함하지 않는 부정사
Did she arrive?
부정 의문문
Did not + 주어 + to를 포함하지 않는 부정사
Didn't you play?
To Walk
긍정문 부정문 의문문
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
to be, to have, to do의 단순 과거 시제
주어 동사
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

긍정, 부정 그리고 의문 형태에 대한 설명

긍정 형태

단순 과거 시제의 긍정 형태는 단순합니다.

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
부정 및 의문 형태

일반 동사로서 "do"의 부정 및 의문 단순 과거 형태의 경우, 조동사 "do"를 사용하세요. 예를 들면, We didn't do our homework last night.
"have"의 부정 단순 과거형은 일반적으로 조동사 "do"를 사용하여 만들어 지지만, 때때로 단순히 not이나 축약 형태"n't"를 붙여서 만들어 집니다.

"have"의 단순 과거형 부정 형태는 일반적으로 조동사 "do"를 사용합니다.

  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

주의: 모든 동사들의 단순 과거형 부정 및 의문 형태는 항상 조동사 'did''를 사용합니다.

단순 과거, 불규칙 동사

몇몇의 동사는 불규칙 단순 과거 형태를 가집니다. 가장 일반적은 예들을 보세요.

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?